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The National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) generates state-level estimates for 23 measures of substance use and mental health problems for four age groups: the entire state population over the age of 12 (12+); individuals age 12 to 17; individuals age 18 to 25; and individuals age 26 and older (26+). Since state estimates of substance use and abuse were first generated using the combined 2002-2003 NSDUHs and continuing until the most recent state estimates based on the combined 2005-2006 surveys, New Mexicos rates have been among the highest in the country for the following measures (Table 1):
Table 1: New Mexico is among those states with the highest rates of the
It is worth noting that across all survey years and all age groups, New Mexicos rates for the above measures as well as for additional ones (past month marijuana use and past month use of an illicit drug other than marijuana) have consistently remained above the national rates.
|Past Month Illicit Drug Use||12-17|
|Past Year Marijuana Use||12-17|
|Past Year Marijuana Use||12-17|
Abuse and Dependance
Questions in NSDUH are used to classify persons as being dependent on or abusing specific substances based on criteria specified in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition (DSM-IV) (American Psychiatric Association, 1994).
On the global measure of any dependence on or abuse of illicit drugs or alcohol, rates in New Mexico for all age groups and across all survey years have generally remained at or above the national rates (Chart 1).
Substance Abuse Treatment Facilities
According to the National Survey of Substance Abuse Treatment Services (N-SSATS),3 the number of treatment facilities in New Mexico has remained relatively steady, with 120 facilities responding to the 2006 survey (the most recent year for which data are available). Of these facilities, 11 were owned or operated by tribal government(s), and 32 facilities offered treatment in American Indian languages.
Although facilities may offer more than one modality of care, the majority of facilities (103 of 120, or 86%) offer some form of outpatient treatment. An additional 31 facilities offer some form of residential care. Ten facilities offer an opioid treatment program, and 93 physicians and 13 treatment programs are certified to provide buprenorphine care.
In 2006, 94 facilities (78%) received some form of Federal, State, county, or local government funds, and 72 facilities (60%) had agreements or contracts with managed care organizations for the provision of substance abuse treatment services.
State treatment data for substance use disorders are derived from two primary sources‚''an annual one-day census in N-SSATS, and annual treatment admissions from the Treatment Episode Data Set (TEDS).4 In the 2006 N-SSATS survey, New Mexico showed an one-day total of 12,634 clients in treatment, the majority of whom (11,908 or 94%) were in outpatient treatment. Of the total number of clients in treatment on this date, 1,484 (12%) were under the age of 18.
Chart 2 shows the percent of admissions mentioning particular drugs or alcohol at the time of admission.5 Across the last 15 years, there has been a decline in the percent of admissions mentioning alcohol (from 89% in 1992, to 56% in 2006), and an increase in the percent of admissions mentioning methamphetamine.
Across the years for which TEDS data are available, New Mexico has seen a substantial shift in the constellation of problems present at treatment admission (Chart 3). Alcohol-only admissions have declined from 58 percent of all admissions in 1992, to just over 34 percent in 2005. Concomitantly, drug-only admissions have increased from 10 percent in 1992, to 22 percent in 2005; and admissions with no substance of abuse have increased from 1 percent in 1992 to 27 percent in 2006.
Unmet Need For Treatment
NSDUH defines unmet treatment as an individual who meets the criteria for abuse of or dependence on illicit drugs or alcohol according to the DSM-IV, but who has not received specialty treatment for that problem in the past year.
Across all survey years and age groups for both measures, New Mexico‚''s rates have generally declined overall. While the rates for unmet drug treatment need have declined to levels at or below the national average (Chart 4), the rates for unmet alcohol treatment need have remained at or above the national averages, particularly for individuals age 18 to 25 (Chart 5).